Human fertilization is the union of a human egg and sperm, usually occurring in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. The process of fertilization involves a sperm fusing with an ovum. The most common sequence begins with ejaculation during copulation, followed by ovulation.

Ovulation is the release of eggs from the ovaries. In humans, this event occurs when the follicles rupture and release the secondary oocyte ovarian cells. After ovulation, during the luteal phase, the egg will be available to be fertilized by sperm.


Causes of male infertility :

  • Low sperm count (<15 million)
  • Low sperm motility
  • Abnormal sperms

Causes of female infertility :

    Ovulation disorders :
  • Premature ovarian failure
  • PCOS
  • Hyperprolactinaemia
  • Poor egg quality
    Thyroid problems:
  • Fibroids
  • Tubal blocks
  • Other causes


Male problems
  • Loss of desire, with a consequent decrease in sexual activity
  • Erectile problems
  • Premature ejaculation—little or no control over ejaculatory response and ejaculation may occur before vaginal entry achieved
  • Retarded ejaculation—difficulty ejaculating intravaginally, or at all
Female problems
  • Loss of desire
  • Vaginismus
  • Dyspareunia
  • Anorgasmia